Consciously non-conformist writing that embraced bohemian lifestyles, rejected so-called "bourgeois middle-class standards" and often celebrated alcoholism and recreational drug use. Began in late 1940s with group of New York writers centered around Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs, and William Corso. Cross-fertilized by writers of the San Francisco Renaissance such as Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Kenneth Rexroth and Bob Kaufman. Associated with non-conformist music and visual arts, from folk music revivalists to more radical expermentation. Gradually supplanted by the hippie counter-culture of the 1960s.

Subcategories 12

Related categories 1

The 3rd Page
Journal of Ongrowing Natures, edited by Hammond Guthrie, author of AsEverWas: Memoirs of a Beat Survivor.
A. D. Winans Looks Back at the Beat Generation
San Francisco poet Winans discusses the roots of the Beat Generation poets and writers, and their legacy.
Ah Puch Is Here
Malcolm McNeill and William Burroughs - art work for unpublished image novel (aka, Ah Pook Is Here) created in early 1970s in London.
Alan Russo, The Locked Man poems
1960; Wichita, KS, poet Charles Plymell, printer. Very little poetry is available by Russo, considered one of the best by his beat peers.
Allen Ginsberg and his world: photos by Gordon Ball
Ball edited three books with poet Allen Ginsberg, including Pulitzer Prize nominee "Allen Verbatim."
Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl”: Fifty years later and in its own time
By Andras Gyorgy; World Socialist take on the conditions that the Beats wrote in versus current realites.
American Museum of Beat Art
Museum located in Pasadena, California. Featuring writers, poets, film, artists, photographs, manifestos, and critical writing.
Amram, David. "A vanishing America?:
Kerouac memories, a Guthrie symphony and a trip to Nathan’s Coney Island hot dog emporium
And the Beat Goes On
about City Lights bookstore and the counterculture: 1961 - 1974, on its 50th anniversary, from S.F. Gate, 2003
Aram Saroyan
Writer, poet, playwright, with ties to the Beats; author of "The Saga of Lew Welch and the Beat Generation"
Ashcan Rantings and Kind King Light of Mind
Why the Beats Still Matter by actor J.C. Shakespeare
Ashleigh Brilliant
artist and writer, creator of pot-shots cartoons, famous for their 17-word limit.
Back Beat
Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs's co-authored noir novel, "And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks" resurfaces. How the post-Beats make money, by infamous boxing sports writer, Beat George Kimball.
Beat Culture: A Later Manifestation of Bohemia
Subcultural stories and resources with book reviews, recommended links, original articles and event listings. Featuring Jack Kerouac and influential beat characters. From Mt. Holyoke class.
Beat Generation in Tangiers
Author Chuck Woww visits Tangiers and writes to Beat William Burroughs about it, with photographs of Cafe Centrale and the Tangier beach, 2008.
The Beat Generation of Greenwich Village and Beyond
A photographic essay of Beat Generation landmarks in New York City.
The Beat Page
Biographies, photos and included works of Beat Generation writers.
Beat Papers of Al Aronowitz
A collection of interviews, memories and articles by the late Aronowitz, the infamous Black Listed Journalist, who was actually there; close friend of Ginsberg and introduced Bob Dylan to the Beatles.
Beat Quotes
Quotes by or pertaining to a beat author.
An online discussion forum devoted to the study of the lives and works of the writers of the Beat Generation, especially Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs.
from Beat Scene Magazine, by Bill Whipp; on murder, death and violence in North Beach, 1950s
The Beats and Sixties Counterculture
A guide to the social contexts of the Fifties so to be able to understand why the Beats’ work was considered to be so significant, by Jed Skinner
Beats In Kansas: Interview with George Laughead
On-line history of the Beat Generation started at Un. of Kansas because of the odd fact that 80 percent of living beats were from Kansas. Interview by Michalis Limnios, Blue@Greece
Beats In Kansas: the Beat Generation in the Heartland
Collection of links and original articles. Many Beats were from Kansas. Original photos of William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Michael McClure, Charles Plymell.
Magazine which documents and highlights the writers, poets, musicians and artists of America's Beat Generation.
Bibliography of The Beat Generation
A list of books, articles and essays about the Beats from University of Maryland class: The Beat Begins - America in the 1950s.
The birth of the beatnik
By James Campbell, author of This is the Beat Generation, 1999. Excellent background to the naming of the beats by Herb Caen - post Sputnik.
Birth of The Beats is Born, 64 years later
James Grauerholz on William Burroughs and Jack Kerouac 1946 book, "And the Hippos Were Boiled in their Tanks," the first writing by later Beat literature giants, finally published in 2008.
A Blackout Tavern
Study in 1960s Folklore, by Pat O'Connor. The 1960s hippie scene in Wichita, KS. Includes photographs, and covers the first large LSD bust in Kansas.
Brautigan, Richard (1935-1984)
Bibliography and information about the writer told in text, images, and other resources. Maintained by John F. Barber.
Call Me Burroughs: A Life
by Barry Miles. A vivid new biography of the beat wild man William Burroughs recasts him as a vitriolic vaudeville performer haunted by the killing of his wife.
Catfish McDaris Interviews Charles Plymell
Beat poets McDaris and Plymell on the 1960s San Francisco scene.
Characters In Beat and Bohemian Literature
Listing by person's last name to their fictional character name(s) in Beat literature. From Worchel Institute for the Study of Beat and Bohemian Literature.
Charles Plymell : The Benzedrine Highway Interview
by Paul Hawkins, Reality Studio, photographs; Early beat writer & poet Plymell became well known after the 1971 publication of his novel, Last of The Moccasins. Included are comments from Roxie Powell, Hammond Guthrie, Laki Vazakas, Ginger Killian Eades, and Mike Watt.
Charles Plymell, from Kansa, Land of the Wind People
biographical writing from Plymell, early beat generation poet, author.
Charles Plymell, from The Last of the Moccasins
On the Wichita Vortex, from outlaw poet and early beat generation author Plymell, friend of Allen Ginsberg and Neal Cassady.
Cold War Correspondents: Ginsberg, Kerouac, Cassady, and the Political Economy of Beat Letters
by Dr. Oliver Harris, Dept. of American Studies, Keele University, England, leading Burroughs scholar. (registration is required) [PDF]
Corban LePell letter on art
Beat artist LePell writes on art in a letter to student Sylvia Smith Kleindinst, 1955
Corso - The Last Beat
Documentary film following Beat co-founder Gregory Corso, "on the road" in Europe retracing the early days of "The Beats".
Cultural Chronology of Early Beat Generation Literature
Annotated list of beat publication dates and events, by Larry Smith (Firelands College of BGSU)
Daniel Abdal-Hayy Moore Poetry
A selection from the lifework in poetry, theater and art of Moore, whose first book of poems, Dawn Visions, was published by City Lights Books in 1964, and the second, Burnt Heart /An Ode to the War Dead in 1972.
Death Of The Beat Generation
Gay Today magazine article by Jesse Monteagudo, written following the deaths of gay Beat writers William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg and Herbert Huncke, on their impact on modern culture.
Denton Welsh biography
Author, painter. 1915-1948. Major literary influence on William Burroughs.
Dharma Beat Links
A directory on writer Jack Kerouac, and his friends, including Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, and Neal Cassady.
George Tsongas: San Francisco Poet
81 year old Tsongas (1929-2010) was of the Beats but not part of any movement.
Goodie Magazine
Lost Beat poets
Gordon Ball's Beat Generation
Ball teaches at the Virginia Military Institute -- a photo of Allen Ginsberg teaching Ball's class is now a classic.
Haight Ashbury Song Book
by Ashleigh Brilliant, 1967, San Francisco's "Songs of love and haight." Beat Generation to hippie transition.
Harold Norse, Poet
Norse (1916- 2009 ) was among the American expatriates in Europe during the 1950's and early 1960's. He was an occupant of the Beat Hotel, Paris, where he first caught up with the Beat generation writers in 1960. Poet William Carlos Williams was his mentor. Obituary from The Guardian newspaper.
Henry Miller and William Burroughs: An Overview
Reality Studio's: the influence of Henry Miller on Burroughs at Harvard in September 1935, his senior year, when the Harvard Advocate printed Miller, his first publication in America.
Herbert Huncke Interview
by Johnny Strike, 1982, at Naropa Institute, Boulder, CO. Huncke was the original Beat; major influence on William Burroughs. Reality Studio.
Hibblen Radio - Beat Generation
A portfolio website for CBS News Radio reporter Michael Hibblen featuring sound clips of the Beat Generation
James Mechem, Beat Writer and Publisher, New York
Caprice magazine and Bowery Poetry Club founder; interviewed on his 80th birthday in 2003 by poet Denise Low, original photographs.
John Long & Philomene Long
Ghosts of Venice Beach; late poets and leaders of Los Angeles beat literature
Kulchur No. 1 Magazine
Spring 1960 edition, edited by Charles Olson and Le Roi Jones [Amiri Baraka] ; includes William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Diane Di Prima, Paul Bowles and Donald Phelps.
Larry Keenan - Beat Generation & Counter-Culture Photography Galleries
Featuring Keenan's famed fine art photographs of the Beat Generation and Hippies and counterculture, from 1964 to now. Includes a biography and exhibitions, publications. No photographer was closer to the Beats.
Literary Kicks
A free-form study of Beat Literature, literary community and underground culture.
Malcolm McNeill Interview on William Burroughs, Ah Puch Is Here
Emmy award winning artist McNeill worked with Burroughs in London during early 1970s, on comic series, The Unspeakable Mr. Hart, and graphic novel, Ah Puch Is Here (aka, Ah Pook is Here), from Beats In Kansas, 2007
Michael McClure & Ray Manzarek Official Website
Beat poet McClure and former Door's band member Manzarek's website focuses on their collaboration of music and poetry projects and publications, performances, books, CDs, and videos.
Michael McClure: An Anthology of Poems
Selected by the author for the "Margins" symposium series in 1975. McClure is one of the five poets (including Allen Ginsberg) who read at the famous San Francisco Six Gallery reading in 1955.
Moody's Skidrow Beanery
In Wichita, Kansas, Moody Connell believed in a mix of hoboes and Beats and served them simple fare in a place to congregate, by Pat O'Connor.
Naked Lens:
An Analysis of Beat Cinema
Naropa University - Audio Archive Project
Massive oral collection from Buddhist university; includes Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, William S. Burroughs, Philip Whalen, Michael McClure, Gary Snyder, Diane DiPrima, Lawrence Ferlinghetti.
Observed While Falling: Bill Burroughs, Ah Pook and Me
Excerpts from new book by artist Malcolm McNeill on the 1970s, London, and working with Burroughs on a graphic novel.
Oliver Harris on Burroughs
Dr. Harris, a leading Beat scholar on "William Burroughs and the Composite Text," presented at the 4th Annual Symposium on Textual Studies, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK; 25 May 2007.
On R. Crumb and Zap Comix: Curled in Character
by Charley Plymell, Zap's first printer
On Ray Bremser
by poet Charles Plymell; Bremser one of the original, and most authentic Beats, a hipster from the same vein as Herbert Huncke
Paul Bowles Photographs
Literary friends of writer Bowles, visiting him in Tangier in 1950s and 1960s. Includes Ginsberg, Burroughs, Corso.
Philomene Long -- Interview for Ruta 66
By Jordi Pujol Nadal. Greenwich Village native and the Beat Queen of Venice, CA, poet Long and her late husband, poet John Thomas, helped create the Los Angeles poetry scene.
The Poetry Center and American Poetry Archives
San Francisco State University; artist biographies and MP3 audio files; founded in 1954 on the basis of a gift by W.H. Auden.
Poets Charles Plymell, Roxie Powell
Photograph of Beat writers and poets Plymell and Powell, Cherry Valley, NY, 2009; photograph by videographer Laki Vazakas.
PoLarity eMagazine
New American Bohemian Literature, George Wallace, editor. Fiction, photographs, Beat events
Remembering William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg
Personal observations by poet Jim McCrary, a longtime friend of Burroughs, and his office manager for ten years.
Robert Cass, New Orleans Beat Legend
Dennis Formento interviews Robert Cass, New Orleans' oldest living beatnik, 1999. Cass published "Climax: A Creative Review in the Jazz Spirit" in 1955 and 1956 from the bar, A Quarterite Place, 733 Bourbon St. It was among the earliest of the Beat literature.
Roxie Powell — Wild Whispers
Robert Peters said of Powell’s first chapbook, "anyone anxious for an original experience in poetry will love Dreams of Straw." Allen Ginsberg paid for a second printing of the book. From Kansas, friend of Charley Plymell and Dave Haselwood.
Roxie Powell, Kansas Collateral
Poems by Beat related poet published in 1978 by CV Editions, Cherry Valley, NY, edited by poet Charley Plymell. Powell grew up in western Kansas, and started writing in the 1940s. He was part of the San Francisco scene in the early 1960s.
Ruined Time: The 1950s and the Beat
Memoir of the Great Depression, World War II, and the 1950s with an uniquely Beat outlook.
Salon Books | Breaking up with the Beats
Kerouac and company were David Gates' first literary loves -- but he had to get off their road.
San Francisco Renaissance
6 Poets at 6 Gallery by Al Aronowitz., the late godfather of rock journalism
Semiology: Beats Vs. Beatniks In 1950s American Culture
by Grant L. Allen. Transition from beat idea to beatnik myth distorted the original almost beyond recognition.
Six Poets at Six Gallery
October 7, 1955 reading with Michael McClure, Philip Lamantia, Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Phil Whalen, Kenneth Rexroth, San Francisco. First reading of "Howl" by Ginsberg. Start of modern oral poetry tradition.
Some Notes on Cyberliths
by Bruce Harris; on Beat artist Robert LaVigne's Cyberliths, drawings inspired by the Rosette Stone. LaVigne introduced Allen Ginsberg to Peter Orlovsky.
Stuart Perkoff / Philomene Long - Death Bed Conversation
A central figure in the Venice Beat scene, poet Perkoff died at age 44 on June 24, 1974. Beat Poet Long was his lover.
Taylor Mead - The Bowery Poetry Club - Part I
YouTube - Filmed December 22, 2006, at the Bowery Poetry Club, NYC, where Beat poet and artist Mead performed until his death May 8, 2013.
This is the Beat Generation
by John Clellon Holmes, A 26-year-old defines his times, New York Times Magazine, Nov. 16, 1952. Very early essay on Beats; Holmes also wrote novel "Go" in 1952, the first book to cover Kerouac, Ginsberg, et al.
Timothy Leary on William Burroughs, Brion Gysin, and Bou Saada
interview, Pataphysics, October 17, 1989. On beats in Algiers, Tangiers, cut-ups, and the "Dream Machine." From INTO-GAL, 2006
Unspeakable Visions: The Beat Generation and The Bohemian Dialectic
by Michael Haywood. 1991 paper on the history of the Beat writers in print, from their early stirrings in the underground press, through to their publication by mainstream publishers.
The Wichita Group
by James Johnson; on the Wichita Vortex, including Michael McClure, Bruce Conner, and David Haselwood
Wikipedia: Beat Generation
Detailed article lists principal writers in New York, San Francisco and elsewhere, and explains links to music, visual arts, and drug and alcohol use. With section on anti-Beats such as Norman Podhoretz.
The Wild Bohemian Home Page
Colin Pringle's articles and directory on wild cats and chicks, Hippies, the Beat Generation, Bohemian bands, outlaw bikers.
William Burroughs & Allen Ginsberg: PJs photograph
Morning in Burroughs' house, with Beat founders in old fashion cotton pajamas. 1984, by Pat Elliott, Lawrence, KS
William Burroughs Funeral Banquet
by George Laughead. Events of August 1997 following Beat writer Burroughs death at age 83. Photographs.
William Burroughs interviewed by Allen Ginsberg and Gregory Corso
1961 free-form discussion by three of the Beat Generation literary leaders.

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