'Ancient philosophy' is the conventional title, in Europe and the English-speaking academy, for the philosophical activities of the thinkers of the Graeco-Roman world. It includes a succession of philosophers who operated over a 1,000-year period from the middle of the first millennium BC to the middle of the first millennium AD - from Thales and the earliest Pre-Socratics to late Neoplatonists and Aristotelian commentators, such as Simplicius and Philoponus. Later thinkers in Europe (e.g. Scotus Eriugena) are normally assigned to the category 'medieval', as are Arabic philosophers such as Avicenna and Averro√ęs. Contemporary philosophers from other cultures (e.g. Confucius, Buddha) are also not included.

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Ancient Roman philosophy: Discourses by Epictetus
A selection from the Discourses of Epictetus, ancient Roman philosopher who was born 60 AD, on surrender and the will of God.
Ancient Rome - Philosophy
Overview of ancient Roman philosophy by Richard Hooker.
Classical Political Philosophy
Essays on Greek and Roman political thinkers and experiences.
The Glory That Was Greece
Athenian philosophers by Leigh Denault.
Greek Philosophy
The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/Mythopoeic Thought - How was Greek philosophy different from what came before? Or was it different?
Greek Philosophy
Brief article outlining the history of Greek philosophy. From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
History of Ancient Philosophy
Lecture notes to S. Marc Cohen's course at the University of Washington.
Individual and Conflict in Greek Ethics
Paula Gottlieb reviews Nicholas White's book. From Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
Ionian Thinkers
Essay on the pre-Socratics by C.D.C. Reeve of Reed College
Nicene and Postnicene Fathers
Essay by Philip Schaff.
Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy: Volume XX
John E. Sisko reviews this collection of essays edited by David Sedley. From Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
Scholarly journal for the study of ancient Greek and Roman thought, available in print and digital formats. Offers information about subscribing and reproductions of select articles featured in the publication.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Alcmaeon of Croton
Life and work of early Greek medical writer and philosopher-scientist, by Carl Huffman.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Archytas
Life and work of fourth century BC Greek mathematician, political leader and philosopher, by Carl Huffman.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Episteme and Techne
Discussion of the distinction between knowledge and craft, or art in ancient philosophy; by Richard Parry.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Plotinus
Life and work of this founder of Neoplatonism; by Lloyd Gerson from the Stanford Encyclopedia.

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